REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM: INTRODUCTION, REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF MAMMALS, STRUCTURE, FUNCTIONS, DIFFERENCES

Reproduction is the production of new individuals from the older ones of the same species. This means giving birth to new individuals from the same older species having both or combination of their genes in the new species. The organs concerned with reproduction are called Reproductive Organs. These organs aids in mating as new set of species will be birthed. The male reproductive organ is called Testis while
the female reproductive organ is called Ovary.

REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEMS OF MAMMALS
These are organs which help in organisms mating thereby giving birth to new set of species. In this case, reproduction can either be Sexual or Asexual. Irrespective of the organism involved, reproduction must always take place.

THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGAN
This form of reproduction is concerned with the males only. In this type of reproduction the Penis and its entirety is made use of.

FUNCTION OF DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGAN
In mammals, there are two oval- shaped testes which are located inside two different scrotal sac. In man, the two sacs unite to form the scrotum which houses the two testes. Each testes is made up of highly coiled tubules called the Somniferous Tubules. These tubules unite to form much coiled tubules called Epididymis and it’s about six metres long.

The epididymis lying outside each testis, leads into a muscular sperm duct (vas deferens). The two vas differentia, one from each testis come together and open into the top of the urethra which is continuous with the urinary bladder. A short coiled tube, called the Seminal Vesicle branches from each sperm duct also opens into the origin of the urethra. Near this origin of the urethra, is situated a Prostate Gland. Just below it, on either side of the urethra, lies the Cowper’s gland. The urethra is a narrow tube that prolongs into an erectile organ, the Penis.

FUNCTIONS
1. Scrotum: it’s the bag or sac that houses and protects the testes. It also encourages sperm production by lowering the testes temperature.
2. Testis: the cells of the seminiferous tubules of the testes produce sperms.
3. Vas deferens: it’s the duct for conducting sperms to urethra.
4. Seminal vesicle: it secretes semen in which the sperms are suspended.
5. Prostate Gland: its secretions activates the sperm
6. Cowper’s gland: it secretes lubricant and acid neutralizer into the urethra.
7. Urethra: it helps in the passage of sperm and urine to the outside and so it’s said to be urogenital in function.
8. Penis: it helps introduces the sperm into the vagina.

THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS
The female reproductive organ is usually of the females. Here, the vagina and its surrounding organs are made used of.

STRUCTURE

In humans, the two ovaries are located below the kidneys. Close to each ovary is a funnel shaped structure, the Fallopian tube which leads to a narrow duct called the Oviduct or Fallopian tube. The tube leads into one common uterus or womb which subsequently opens into the vagina. The lower narrow end of the uterus which leads into the vagina is called the Cervix. The vagina opens to the outside through the vulva.

FUNCTIONS
OVARY: The Gratian follicle of ovary produces ovum
OVIDUCT OR FALLOPIAN TUBE: It helps in the passage of released eggs and it’s the site of fertilization.
UTERUS: It’s where the fertilized eggs develop.
VAGINA: It’s used for copulation, deposition of the sperm and for the passage of a baby during child birth.

THE SPERM AND OVUM
The male sperm is 0.006mm long. It has a head containing nucleus, a neck and a tail called Flagellum which helps the sperm to swim towards the egg.

OVUM: The ovum or egg is 0.1 mm in diameter. It has a nucleus inside the cytoplasm. The egg is covered outside by Vitelline Membrane and on the inside by Plasma Membrane.

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS IN MAMMALS
1. In males the testes are scrotal sac outside the body while in females, the ovaries are within the body.
2. In males, the testes produce sperm while in females, the ovaries produce ova or eggs.
3. In males, the erectile organ is penis while in females the erectile organ is the clitoris.
4. In males, the hormone of testis is Testosterone while in females, the hormone of the ovary is Oestrogen.
5. In males, the cervix is absent while in females, the cervix is present.

Leave a comment