MICROORGANISMS : TOWARDS GOOD HEALTH, CONTROL, VECTORS, CONTROL MEASURES, PUBLIC HEALTH, ROLES OF INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS

Diseases abound daily in the human life and we can’t take away sickness from our existence. These sicknesses are sometimes caused by carelessness, negligence to tell-tale signs, stress, lack of nutritional foods and ultimately microorganisms.
These microorganisms which are very minute cannot be seen with the unaided human eye except through the help of an electron microscope or a magnifying lens. These microorganisms are everywhere around us; in our bodies, outside our bodies, in the food we eat, on surfaces and lots more but adequate measures are to be taken to prevent them from making us fall ill.

CONTROL OF HARMFUL MICROORGANISMS

Harmful microorganisms must be controlled in order to prevent;
1. The spread of diseases.
2. The spoilage of food.
3. They must be prevented from destroying useful materials, e.g. wood and textile.

CONTROL OF DISEASE- CAUSING MICROORGANISM

1. HIGH TEMPERATURE: High temperature kills microorganisms. Also, very low temperatures halt microbial activities.
2. ANTIBIOTICS: They prevent the growth of microorganisms or kill them.
3. ANTISEPTICS: These chemicals kill or prevent the growth of microorganisms.
4. DEHYDRATION: Removal of water makes it unfavourable for microorganisms to grow.
5. IMMUNIZATION: This is the introduction of a dead pathogen into the blood thereby stimulating the development of antibodies which will make the body immune against that disease for over a given period of time.

VECTOR
A vector is any animal that can carry disease-causing organisms from one organism to another. Examples are flies, mosquitoes, tsetse fly, ticks, and black fly.

Listed below are examples of vectors, their causative organisms and disease carried;

1. Female Anopheles Mosquito
Causative Organism; Plasmodium parasite
Disease; Malaria
2. Tsetse fly/ Aedes Mosquito
Causative Organism; Trypanosoma
Disease; Sleeping sickness and Yellow fever.
3. House Fly
Causative Organism: Dysentery Bacilli
Disease: Dysentery
4. Black Fly
Causative Organism; Round Worm
Disease: Onchoceriasis

WAYS OF CONTROLLING VECTORS

The following under listed ways are mediums through which vectors are controlled

MOSQUITO
1. Draining of swamps to eliminate breeding grounds for mosquitoes
2. Cutting of bushes around houses to reduce hiding places for adult mosquitoes.
3. Sleeping in a mosquito net and well ventilated room
4. Spraying the room with insecticides to kill adult mosquitoes.

HOUSE FLIES
1. There should be no dirty damp and warm place for them to breed.
2. Dustbins should be covered properly
3. Kill maggots and adult flies by spraying insecticides or trap the adults with stick fly-papers.
4. Proper sanitation and adequate sewage disposal should be observed.

BLACK FLIES
1. To prevent its vector from breeding, there should be no dirty damp places around river water. Also, breeding ground should be treated with larvicides.
2. Roundworm infestation can be treated with drugs to kill the adult worms.
3. Damming of fast flowing rivers should be observed.

Some vectors such as ticks, mites, and bed-bugs can be controlled by good personal hygiene, clean environment and use of insecticides.

PUBLIC HEALTH
This is an aspect of the medical world where the health of individuals are laid to bare. This interesting aspect of medicines focuses on the health of its individuals thereby promoting good health as it’s’ slogan. People who work in this sector are referred to as ‘’ Public Health Care Workers’’.

In order for this medical sector to thrive successfully, maintenance of good health should be observed accordingly;

REFUSE DISPOSAL

Refuse is the solid wastes from homes, offices, factories, schools, hospitals, shops, etc. Refuse can be disposed of by;
1. Burning them in incinerator
2. Dumping them in isolated areas away from home
3. Burying them in a sanitary land fill
4. Using dustbins.

SEWAGE DISPOSAL

Sewage is a mixture of human materials which includes faeces, urine, and bath water. Sewage contains lots of disease causing microorganisms and therefore should be properly disposed of to prevent spreading of food and water borne diseases.

Methods of disposing sewage includes
1. PIT LATERINE: This method involves passing faeces and urine into a deep pit. This keeps away flies and prevents bad odour. They should be sited far away from wells and houses.
2. BUCKET LATERINE: A bucket is placed underneath a seat which collects the faeces and urine which are removed by night soil men. This method should be discouraged because of risk of soil and water contamination.
3. THE WATER CARRIAGE SYSTEM: This involves the removal of sewage by water through a system of pipes or drain into a septic tank. This is the best method of sewage disposal. This requires a running pipe borne water and a flushable lavatory. The sewage can then be treated before being discharged.

SEWAGE TREATMENT
Sewage is treated in order to kill harmful microorganisms and also to reduce the amount of organic materials returning to the water. This removal of sewage matter is accomplished in treatment by number of different operations or by a suitable combination of these processes into effectively treating them. These processes includes;
Primary treatment, Secondary Treatment, and tertiary Treatment.

PROTECTION OF WATER
Water from different sources may contain solid particles and diseases causing microorganisms. In order to prevent water borne diseases, it must be treated before being supplied to end users.

PROTECTION OF FOOD
The method of food protection are highlighted below;
1. Imported foods especially canned or paper foods should be certified consumable by the relevant authorities before being released into the market.
2. Cattle should be declared disease free by Public Health Officers before they are slaughtered for sale.
3. Only clean eating places should be allowed to operate
4. Personal cleanliness and proper sanitation helps to avoid food poisoning or contamination.

CONTROL OF DISEASES
1. Maintenance of personal hygiene.
2. Active immunization of children against cholera, yellow fever and small pox.
3. Proper environmental sanitation be observed.
4. Habits of urinating, defecating and spitting in open air or public places should be eschewed.
5. Quarantine measures should be taken against highly communicable diseases such as small pox, yellow fever, cholera, and dysentery.
6. Health Officers of the Ministry of Health should educate the masses on the prevention of infectious diseases.

ROLES INTERNATIONAL HEALTH ORGANIZATIONS SHOULD PLAY IN COMBATING
DISEASES

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION;
1. Training of medical Personnel
2. Prevention and control of major diseases
3. Co-ordination and supporting of medical research
4. Developing health services and providing medical personnel in developing countries.

PUBLIC HEALTH AUTHORITIES
1. Prevent and cure diseases
2. Collect and dispose refuse
3. Enforce and ensure good environmental sanitation.
4. Inspect foods, restaurants and markets.
5. Issue health certificates to worthy health practitioners.

RED CROSS SOCIETY
1. Gives aids to victims of war and disasters by providing food, medical services and consulting.
2. Collects and donates blood to the needy.
3. Provides first- aid services during sports, games and national gatherings.
4. Prevents the outbreak of diseases by immunization exercises.
5. Gives gifts to patients in hospitals and other less fortunate people.

UNITED CHILDREN’S EDUCATION FUND (UNICEF)
1. Supplies medical equipment to rural health centers
2. Feeds destitute children
3. Provides grants for health education
4. Provides milk and vaccines for children and expectant mothers.

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