POLLUTION; MEANING, TYPES, EFFECTS AND CONTROL

POLLUTION
Pollution can be defined as the harmful release of materials or energies into the environment which constitutes danger to humans, animals, or natural resources. These pollution are evident as they can be seen in our environments also degrading them. There are various types of pollution and they are; Air, Water, and Land.

AIR POLLUTION
This type of pollution affects the gaseous elements. Even the air we breathe is also affected by this type of pollution as harmful gaseous substances are been released into the air causing harmful damage to the health of humans, animals, and even our environment.

GASEOUS POLLUTION
1. Sulphur dioxide from burning of fuel containing sulphur.
2. Carbon monoxide from the incomplete combustion of fuel, thus exhaust gases of motor cars contains carbon monoxide
3. Oxides of nitrogen produced by chemical reactions of oxygen and nitrogen in the cylinders of internal combustion engines.
4. Hydrogen sulphide released from industrial processes, e.g., refineries and coal mines and those released during decay of organic matter.

NOISE POLLUTION
Noise from mobs, industrial machines, generators, electronic gadgets, individuals are also forms of noise pollution as these kind comes from people living in highly congested areas.

EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION
1. Sulphur dioxide causes lung disease, changes the green colour of plants and corrode metals in form of sulphuric acid.
2. Smog causes eye irritation, respiratory ailments, and nausea.
3. Radioactive rays are very dangerous to health and can destroy or alter genes.
4. Oxides of nitrogen causes lung irritations, suffocation, diseases in plants, reduction in plant yields and corrosion of metallic objects in form of nitric acid.
5. Noise causes nervous disorder, deafness, sleeplessness, headaches and distraction.

CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION
Air pollution may be controlled by the following ways
1. Locating industries away from urban areas
2. Burning of smokeless and sulphur free fuel
3. Using filters to remove pollutants from industrial waste gases
4. Using of tall chimneys to discharge the waste gases high- up the sky.
5. Burning of refuse in incinerators.

LAND POLLUTION
These form of pollution includes polluting the land and its environs. This kind happens everywhere as dirt are been littered everywhere. Its often seen in high urban areas due to the ever increasing population.
Land pollution includes
1. Refuse from domestic wastes, markets, and factories
2. Sewage from homes and offices
3. Industrial wastes from glass industries, plastic industries, and chemical industries.
4. Agricultural chemicals such as pesticides, sprayed on crops
5. Old vehicle bodies and metal scraps from old or disused machines and vehicles.
6. Mining wastes from mines.

EFFECT OF LAND POLLUTION
1. Refuse wastes gives out offensive odours and ugly sight, attracts insect vectors which spreads disease causing bacteria also occupying much space.
2. Sewage give out offensive smell; may contain disease-causing microorganisms which may contaminates our drinking water and food
3. Industrial wastes
a. Chemicals may cause stunted growth in plants and maybe poisonous to man e.g. lead
b. Plastics such as damaged plastics occupy land space and may collect standing water which forms breeding places for mosquitoes.
c. Broken bottles causes injury to the human body and also soil risky for use.
4. Old scraps occupy land space and may pollute air in case of metal scraps having lead as impurity
5. Agricultural chemicals such as pesticides, herbicides, and fungicides can adversely affect soil pH, soil microorganisms, and they also kill useful insects
6. Acid water that drains from abandoned coal mines into the rivers pollute the water. Also dust from mines also pollutes the air.

CONTROL OF LAND POLLUTION
1. Refuse should be properly disposed of by burning them in incinerators
2. Sewage should be treated before being discharged on land
3. Industrial waste products and old scraps should be recycled for further use
4. Policy on land protection should be encouraged
5. Legislation by government prohibiting indiscriminate dumping of refuse should be encouraged.

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