Conservation of natural resources is the preservation of natural resources from loss or waste to human or harmful exploitation through wise or irrational use to ensure their continued use or availability and preserve the quality or original nature of the natural resources.
Resources to be conserved include Water, Soil, Forest, Wild life, and mineral Resources.
RENEWABLE AND NON RENEWABLE NATURAL RESOURCES
1. RENEWABLE RESOURCES; These are resources if managed wisely can as a rule maintain themselves or be continuously replenished by its natural self. Examples are; water, soil, forest, food, mineral resources like crude oil, natural gas e.t.c
2. NON RENEWABLE RESOURCES; these are those that cannot be replaced by their natural means in the foreseeable future since their amount in the earth is fixes. An example of this is coal.
REASONS FOR CONSERVATION
1. To prevent the destruction of the natural environment or to allow for continued use of natural resources for man’s benefit.
2. To prevent the destruction of the natural ecosystem
3. To preserve rare and valuable species of plants and animals for future generations and also to save them from extinction
4. To be used for medicinal and research purposes.
WAYS OF ENSURING CONSERVATION
1. By establishing game reserves, afforestation or planting of trees
2. By establishing conservation agencies
3. By enacting laws prohibiting indiscriminate hunting, careless burning of trees, over exploitation of fishes and mineral resources.
PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED IN CONSERVATION
1. Limited land area for development has resulted in rapid destruction of natural forests
2. Over grazing, over fishing, poaching, and bush burning are still practised.
3. Limited resources of energy hence felling of trees for firewood
4. The lack of awareness of the populace and policy makers of the need for conservation
5. Resources to enforce a vigorous conservation policy are scarce and limited.
6. Cultivation and high demand for timber have resulted in felling of trees.
METHODS OF CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES
1. Building dams and reservoirs to hold back flood water and ensure controlled supply of water for irrigation, hydro-electric power and navigation.
2. Pollution of water by industrial wastes and sewages should be prohibited by enacting laws
3. Water should be treated and used water recycled
4. Busted water pipes should be immediately repaired to avoid water wastage
5. Chanelling of rain water in wells, tanks, and impoundments help to conserve water, soil.
1. Use of different measures to control erosion. These measures include; vegetable protection, contouring, terracing, strip cropping, mulching, wind break and prevention of over grazing.
2. Afforestation should be employed to prevent soil erosion and desertification
3. Legislative laws be enacted to control soil pollution with garbage and agricultural chemicals.
1. Cutting trees without undergrowth
2. Encouraging tree planting known as reforestations
3. Preventing plant diseases
4. Cutting of mature trees only or protection of young trees
5. Educating the populace on the values of forest and importance of conservation.
WILD LIFE CONSERVATION
1. Establishment of game reserves to serve wildlife in the natural habitat
2. Establishment of zoological gardens
3. Controlled hunting and over hunting of wildlife and killing of certain animal species should be discouraged
4. Prohibiting killing and poaching of animals in game reserves
5. Prohibiting of bush burning to avoid killing of wild life or rendering them homeless.
Fishes are conserved by the following ways
1. Controlling of water pollution
2. Ban on harvesting of some species
3. Introducing a large number of fish products through hatcheries in streams, rivers, lakes
4. Controlling of aquatic weeds
5. Setting up of fish ponds and seed multiplication centres
BENEFITS OF CONSERVATION
1. Helps militates against desert encroachment
2. Adds to the revenue of the populace by the introduction of game reserves as tourist attraction
3. Water conservation helps in the preservation of natural species
4. Soil conservation ensures the prevention of soil erosion and desert