Today we will be discussing on classification of crops
There are many systems of classification of crops for example commercial, taxonomical and agricultural but among all this classifications, the agriculture classification of crops is most widely accepted because it covers the taxonomical, commercial and other aspects.
Taxonomical classification deals with the taxonomical aspects of classifying aspects of crops — that is their morphology and economical parts and agro-botanical characters.
Plants are classified according to the commercial purposes as Food crops, Industrial crops and Food adjuncts
Food crops – cereals – Rice, wheat, maize, sorghum, ragi, Pulse, legumes, fruits, vegetables and nuts
Industrial crop – Cotton, Sugarcane, tobacco, groundnut, castor, gingelly, tapioca, etc.
Food adjuncts – No distinct demarcation – food and Industrial usage. spices and condiments, beverages and narcotics
Agricultural classification of crops
Crops can be classified into two groups
(a) classification based on their life cycle
(b) classification based on their uses
Classification based on their life cycle
Under this classification, the crops are further subdivided into three groups
1. Annual crops
These are crops which grow and mature within one year eg. Maize, rice, cowpea, cotton, vegetables, millet etc.
2. Biennial crops
These are crops which grow and mature within two years, e.g. pepper, cassava and ginger
3. Perennial crops
These are crops which grow and mature in more than two years e.g. cocoa, banana, rubber, mango, orange etc
Classification based on their uses
In this classification, crops are divided into the following categories
1. Cereal crops
These crops belong to the grass family and they provide carbohydrates, e.g. maize, rice, millet, Guinea, wheat, barley etc.
2. Pulses (Legumes)
These crops are rich sources of protein, e.g. cowpea, sofa, beans, groundnut, Lima bean etc
3. Roots and tuber crops
These crops produce tubers under the ground and they provide carbohydrates, e.g. cassava, yam, sweet potatoes, cocoyam, beets, carrot etc
4. Vegetable crops
These crops provide vitamins and minerals e.g spinach, okra, amaranthus, cauliflower
5. Fruit crops
These also provide vitamins and minerals, e.g
Orange, banana, pineapple, pawpaw, cashew etc
6. Beverage crops
These provide food drinks when processed, e.g. cocoa, coffee, tea and kolanut.
These also provide vitamins and minerals. They also add flavour to our stew and soups, e.g. pepper, onion and Ginger.
8. Oil crops
These are crops which can provide oil when processed both for domestic and industrial uses, e.g. oil palm, groundnut, melon, coconut, soyabean, cotton.
9. Fibre crops
These crops are used for making clothing materials, ropes, and bags, e.g
Cotton, sisal, kenaf, hemp etc
10. Latex crops
These are crops which provide some white sticky liquid or latex used in plastic industries e.g rubber.
Thank you class, we’ve come to the end of today’s class.