ANIMAL NUTRITION: FOOD CLASSES, NUTRIENT TYPES, FATS
Food can be anything eaten that makes us grow and add to the overall wellness of the body. These foods when eaten in excess could be detrimental as much as when not eaten in required quantities as well. They help in improving the wellness of the body, contributes to body growth, increases basal metabolic rates and helps fight against diseases.
Animal nutrition is a special aspect of nutrition which focuses on animals, their wellness, effects of the intake of food on their health, as well as focusing on the dietary needs of animals which are domesticated, primarily those animals used in agricultural and food production.
There are different kinds of foods consumed daily but specifically there are seven classes of foods which are; Carbohydrates, Proteins, Fats and Oil, Vitamins, Minerals, and Water. These foods must be balanced adequately in meals as any of these eaten in excess or under supply have dangerous effects on the health of animals in general.
Also there are differentiations in food disparities as foods are majorly made up of the Macro and Micro Nutrients. These Macro nutrients which excludes water and fibre provide structures materials and build up energy. These structural materials are usually used to generate energy internally, which are always measured in Joules or Calories. Carbohydrates and Proteins approximately produce 17KJ of energy per gram while fats produce 39KJ per gram.
Water, minerals, vitamins do not supply energy but they are needful in some other areas.
Dietary Fibre which is also a third class food component, do not contribute much but they are required for mechanical and biochemical reasons although their nutritional reason remains unclear.
Other micronutrient includes phytochemicals and antioxidants which are said to protect some systems in the body as these claims have not been validated by food regulating agencies.
Most foods consumed either contains all the six classes of foods or may contain some of them together with toxins. Fat can be stored internally while some are required either in large or small quantities. Poor health status could be caused by lack of a nutrient required or in some cases too much of a required nutrient.
AUTOTROPHS AND HETEROTROPHS
Autotrophs are organisms which from simple food substances makes their own food. This form of food production is possible because green plants contains chlorophyll which enables it performs photosynthesis. Green plants are said to be autotrophic since they can produce food of their own.
Heterotrophs are organisms which can’t make food by themselves through the process of photosynthesis. They take food from animals or green plants. None green plants in their totality do not have chlorophyll for carrying out photosynthesis which makes them dependent on other organisms for food.
Fats is one of the basic class of food as it cant be excluded in the diet. Fat is essential in the diet as they contain one of the building blocks of life, helps regulate the body temperature and give size to the body. These fatty acids contains several other fatty acids bonded together by long chains of carbon and hydrogen atoms. Fats can be either classified as Saturated or unsaturated fats which depends on the structure of the fatty acids that are involved.
There are also the Essential and Non-Essential fatty acids. These class of fatty acids play important roles in the body.