Water pollution can be defined as the contamination of the water bodies ( eg: streams, lakes, ponds, seas, rivers, groundwater etc). Water pollution is a form of degrading the environment by pollutants either indirectly or directly discharging wastes into water bodies without adequately treating them to remove harmful substances and compounds.
This form of pollution affects the entire biosphere in its entirety affecting both plants, organisms, animals living in these water bodies. This effect has not only damaged individual species and population but also damaged the natural biological communities.
Water pollution is globally a major problem that requires continuous investigation and evaluation also revisiting water resource policies at all levels. It is no news that water pollution has become one of the leading worldwide source of death and diseases accounting for the death of more than 15,000 people daily.
Water is typically referred to as being polluted when it contains anthropogenic contaminants which does not support human use such as for cooking, drinking, also not supporting biotic communities like the fish. Natural causes also constitute one of the problems of water pollution such as volcanoes, earthquakes. These pollutants causes major changes in the quality of the water and the water ecological status.
CAUSES OF WATER POLLUTION
Water pollution could be caused by many factors some of which are specific contaminants that includes pathogens, chemicals, physical changes such as water discoloration, and increased temperature. Many of the natural and chemically occurring substances can be regulated while its concentration plays a determining factor in determining what a contaminant is and what a natural component of water is. Natural occurring substances which are high in concentration also have a negative impact on water.
Chemical substances which are toxic have dangerous effects on water as they produce water borne diseases in human and animal hosts. Also, changes in the natural pH, temperature also causes pollutants to the water bodies.
Microorganisms which causes diseases are referred to as pathogens. Vast majority of the bacteria’s are either beneficial or harmless, a few of them are pathogenic as well. Microorganisms which causes water pollution includes
Other causes of water pollution includes discharges from septic tanks, poorly discharged animal wastes, sediment from discharges, organic and inorganic water pollutants, chemical pollutants, thermal pollutants, etc.
CONTROLLING WATER POLLUTION
There should be adequate discharge of sewage wastes into its constituents
Repair and replace leaking sewage septic tanks
Improvise Green House treatment in treating wastes discharges.