Today, we shall be looking at the concept of election. In this study, we shall be looking at the meaning of election, functions of election, and lastly types of election.
Election may be comprehended as a democratic process whereby a people of a particular country, or state go out to the poll to choose who will be their leaders in various political post. Furthermore, it’s a means of selecting leaders from various people vying for the position and other offices. It would be pertinent to note that, election is a democratic process, and can not operate in a military system of government, also known as autocratic rule. Election is to be conducted by an electoral body , for example the body responsible for conduct of election in Nigeria is known as INEC .They are set up by the government , and derives its power from the constitution of the land. To ensure free and fair elections they must be an independent electoral commission. Election is usually periodic, depending on the country and system in place.
FUNCTIONS OF ELECTION.
Election fosters democracy; this is because its gives people the right to choose who leads them.thereby fulfilling the axiomatic definition of Abraham Lincoln, when he said” that democracy is government of the people by the people and for the people.
It ensures control and accountability.
It brings about change of government. It gives citizens the privilege to change leaders who are not performing well.
Lastly, it makes leaders to have legitimacy. Legitimacy is popular support , or ruling with the consent of the citizens.
TYPES OF ELECTION.
we many of types of election. let’s look at some of them briefly.
PRIMARY ELECTION; this is a type of election conducted within a party, it’s from their primary election that they will election people who will be the party flag bearer .
REFERENDUM; this is a type of election held in other to ascertain the minds of the populous on issues bordering the country or state. example is the present agitation for Biafra , whereby the people who want to secede from the country are calling on the federal government to organize referendum for them to express their feelings.
BY-ELECTION .this type of election is been conducted in other to fill in vacant position created either by disqualification, resignation or death .
PLEBISCITE. plebiscite is a ” yes or No ” election basically conducted in other to address issue of national importance.
DIRECT AND INDIRECT ELECTION.
This is where the people cast their votes directly or indirectly depending on who they want him or her to be their leaders .
All the types of election are geared towards ensuring that leaders are responsive to their leaders. And they electorate can as well end the tenure of anyone performing abysmally through a process called” RECALL” Or impeachment.
FREE AND FAIR ELECTIONS.
Free and fair election is a type of election that is violence free , with out coercion , not intimidation and the principles of democracy observed .
Election is an integral part of democracy because that is where the powers of leaders lies. They Also derive legitimacy from the constitutions .